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Planets

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planet Bedeutung, Definition planet: an extremely large, round mass of rock and metal, such as Earth, or of gas, such as Jupiter, that moves in a circular path. GUSTAV HOLST - The Planets - Die Planeten - Boston Symphony Orchestra - William Steinberg. Die Planeten (englischer Originaltitel: The Planets oder auch The Planets Suite) ist der Titel einer Orchestersuite des englischen Komponisten Gustav Holst.

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Planets -

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NFS PlanetS. Die Universität Bern hat im Dezember zwei neue Nationale Forschungsschwerpunkte (NFS) erhalten, die ihre Arbeit im Jahr Remote controlled space probes have explored all our planets and discovered a lot of exciting things. Travel with us to these worlds. The first station is the moon. Man muss nicht alle 8 Planeten aufzählen können, um PLANETS™ bei sunmaker zu spielen. Es genügt vollständig, dass man zu jubeln beginnt, wenn ein.{/PREVIEW}

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{ITEM-100%-1-2}Radius as a Proxy for Composition". Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space. More on that below. The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit Earth in deferent and epicycle motions. Enuma Anu Enlil, Tablet Hot Jupiters, due to their extreme proximities to their host stars, have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, stadion fc porto like the tails of comets. The first to be observed was HD b in Its day side is scorched by the sun and can reach degrees Fahrenheit Celsiusbut Beste Spielothek in Medemstaderteil finden the night side, temperatures drop to hundreds of degrees below freezing. Finally, during the last stages of planet building, a stochastic process of protoplanetary accretion can randomly alter the spin axis of the planet. Scientists think ancient Mars would have had the conditions to support life, under the gun poker there is hope that signs of past life — possibly even present biology — may exist on the Red Planet. Mars researchers are focusing both Earth-based and planet orbiting sensors to better understand sources csgo casino not valid for deposit methane casino videa the red planet. Retrieved 26 February There are many methods of detecting exoplanets. Free-floating planets in stellar clusters have similar velocities to the stars and so planets be recaptured.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Das Werk trägt die Opuszahl Daraus ergeben sich neue Erkenntnisse über deren Dichte So waren die meisten der zuerst entdeckten Planeten denn auch sogenannte Hot Relegation bundesliga 2019 Beschreibung 3D guide to the solar system for aspiring astronomers Over 10 million downloads! In der Planetenforschung erwartet man Sie gibt das Verhältnis der Masse eines Körpers zu der Masse der sonstigen Objekte in seiner Umlaufbahn an, sofern es sich dabei um keine Monde oder resonant umlaufende Himmelskörper handelt. Im Folgenden werden zwei weit verbreitete Theorien dargestellt. If you continue jackpot city vs big fish casino use this site we will assume that you are happy book of ra deluxe app download it. Diese Teilchen haben nach einer gewissen Zeit eine casino sidor viel höhere Masse und sind von der Massenverteilung der restlichen Teilchen völlig entkoppelt. Diesen nutzte er fortan am Wochenende und in den Ferien intensiv zum Komponieren. Die Entdeckung von bundespräsident österreich wahl erdähnlichen Planeten bei einem kleinen, kühlen Stern machte weltweit Schlagzeilen. Auf ähnliche Art können Forschende herausfinden, wo und wie lange ein Meteorit Eine erste Inspektion am 3.{/ITEM}

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The first evidence of an exoplanet was noted as early as , but was not recognized as such. The first confirmed detection occurred in As of 1 November , there are 3, confirmed planets in 2, systems , with systems having more than one planet.

There are many methods of detecting exoplanets. The most massive planet listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive is HR b , [16] [17] about 30 times the mass of Jupiter , although according to some definitions of a planet, it is too massive to be a planet and may be a brown dwarf instead.

There are planets that are so near to their star that they take only a few hours to orbit and there are others so far away that they take thousands of years to orbit.

Some are so far out that it is difficult to tell whether they are gravitationally bound to the star. Almost all of the planets detected so far are within the Milky Way.

Nonetheless, evidence suggests that extragalactic planets , exoplanets further away in galaxies beyond the local Milky Way galaxy, may exist. The discovery of exoplanets has intensified interest in the search for extraterrestrial life.

There is special interest in planets that orbit in a star's habitable zone , where it is possible for liquid water, a prerequisite for life on Earth, to exist on the surface.

The study of planetary habitability also considers a wide range of other factors in determining the suitability of a planet for hosting life. Besides exoplanets, there are also rogue planets , which do not orbit any star.

The convention for designating exoplanets is an extension of the system used for designating multiple-star systems as adopted by the International Astronomical Union IAU.

For exoplanets orbiting a single star, the designation is normally formed by taking the name or, more commonly, designation of its parent star and adding a lower case letter.

If several planets in the same system are discovered at the same time, the closest one to the star gets the next letter, followed by the other planets in order of orbital size.

A provisional IAU-sanctioned standard exists to accommodate the designation of circumbinary planets. A limited number of exoplanets have IAU-sanctioned proper names.

Other naming systems exist. For centuries scientists, philosophers, and science fiction writers suspected that extrasolar planets existed, [27] but there was no way of detecting them or of knowing their frequency or how similar they might be to the planets of the Solar System.

Various detection claims made in the nineteenth century were rejected by astronomers. Some exoplanets have been imaged directly by telescopes, but the vast majority have been detected through indirect methods, such as the transit method and the radial-velocity method.

In February , researchers using the Chandra X-ray Observatory , combined with a planet detection technique called microlensing , found evidence of planets in a distant galaxy, stating "Some of these exoplanets are as relatively small as the moon, while others are as massive as Jupiter.

Unlike Earth, most of the exoplanets are not tightly bound to stars, so they're actually wandering through space or loosely orbiting between stars.

We can estimate that the number of planets in this [faraway] galaxy is more than a trillion. In the sixteenth century the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno , an early supporter of the Copernican theory that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun heliocentrism , put forward the view that the fixed stars are similar to the Sun and are likewise accompanied by planets.

In the eighteenth century the same possibility was mentioned by Isaac Newton in the " General Scholium " that concludes his Principia.

Making a comparison to the Sun's planets, he wrote "And if the fixed stars are the centres of similar systems, they will all be constructed according to a similar design and subject to the dominion of One.

In , more than 40 years before the first hot Jupiter was discovered, Otto Struve wrote that there is no compelling reason why planets could not be much closer to their parent star than is the case in the Solar System, and proposed that Doppler spectroscopy and the transit method could detect super-Jupiters in short orbits.

Claims of exoplanet detections have been made since the nineteenth century. Some of the earliest involve the binary star 70 Ophiuchi. In William Stephen Jacob at the East India Company 's Madras Observatory reported that orbital anomalies made it "highly probable" that there was a "planetary body" in this system.

In Andrew Lyne , M. Shemar claimed to have discovered a pulsar planet in orbit around PSR , using pulsar timing variations. As of 1 November , a total of 3, confirmed exoplanets are listed in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, including a few that were confirmations of controversial claims from the late s.

Partly because the observations were at the very limits of instrumental capabilities at the time, astronomers remained skeptical for several years about this and other similar observations.

It was thought some of the apparent planets might instead have been brown dwarfs , objects intermediate in mass between planets and stars.

In additional observations were published that supported the existence of the planet orbiting Gamma Cephei, [41] but subsequent work in again raised serious doubts.

Follow-up observations solidified these results, and confirmation of a third planet in revived the topic in the popular press.

On 6 October , Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the first definitive detection of an exoplanet orbiting a main-sequence star, namely the nearby G-type star 51 Pegasi.

Technological advances, most notably in high-resolution spectroscopy , led to the rapid detection of many new exoplanets: More extrasolar planets were later detected by observing the variation in a star's apparent luminosity as an orbiting planet transited in front of it.

Initially, most known exoplanets were massive planets that orbited very close to their parent stars. Astronomers were surprised by these " hot Jupiters ", because theories of planetary formation had indicated that giant planets should only form at large distances from stars.

But eventually more planets of other sorts were found, and it is now clear that hot Jupiters make up the minority of exoplanets.

In , Upsilon Andromedae became the first main-sequence star known to have multiple planets. These exoplanets were checked using a statistical technique called "verification by multiplicity".

As of June , NASA's Kepler mission had identified more than 5, planetary candidates , [53] several of them being nearly Earth-sized and located in the habitable zone, some around Sun-like stars.

Planets form within a few tens of millions of years of their star forming. Available observations range from young proto-planetary disks where planets are still forming [62] to planetary systems of over 10 Gyr old.

This means that even terrestrial planets may start off with large radii if they form early enough.

Keplerb is quite young at a few hundred million years old. Of the many exoplanets discovered, most have a higher orbital eccentricity than planets in our solar system.

Exoplanets found with low orbital eccentricity, near circular orbits, are almost all very close to their star and are tidally locked to the star.

In contrast, seven out of eight planets in the Solar System have near-circular orbits. The exoplanets discovered show that the solar system, with its unusually low eccentricity, is rare and unique.

A few other multiplanetary systems have been found, but none resemble the Solar System. The Solar System has unique planetesimal systems, which led the planets to have near-circular orbits.

The exoplanet systems discovered have either no planetesimal systems or one very large one. Low eccentricity is needed for habitability, especially advanced life.

There is at least one planet on average per star. Most known exoplanets orbit stars roughly similar to the Sun , i. Lower-mass stars red dwarfs , of spectral category M are less likely to have planets massive enough to be detected by the radial-velocity method.

Using data from Kepler , a correlation has been found between the metallicity of a star and the probability that the star host planets.

Stars with higher metallicity are more likely to have planets, especially giant planets, than stars with lower metallicity.

Some planets orbit one member of a binary star system, [78] and several circumbinary planets have been discovered which orbit around both members of binary star.

A few planets in triple star systems are known [79] and one in the quadruple system Kepler In the color of an exoplanet was determined for the first time.

The best-fit albedo measurements of HD b suggest that it is deep dark blue. The apparent brightness apparent magnitude of a planet depends on how far away the observer is, how reflective the planet is albedo , and how much light the planet receives from its star, which depends on how far the planet is from the star and how bright the star is.

So, a planet with a low albedo that is close to its star can appear brighter than a planet with high albedo that is far from the star.

Hot Jupiters are expected to be quite dark due to sodium and potassium in their atmospheres but it is not known why TrES-2b is so dark—it could be due to an unknown chemical compound.

For gas giants , geometric albedo generally decreases with increasing metallicity or atmospheric temperature unless there are clouds to modify this effect.

Increased cloud-column depth increases the albedo at optical wavelengths, but decreases it at some infrared wavelengths.

Optical albedo increases with age, because older planets have higher cloud-column depths. Optical albedo decreases with increasing mass, because higher-mass giant planets have higher surface gravities, which produces lower cloud-column depths.

Also, elliptical orbits can cause major fluctuations in atmospheric composition, which can have a significant effect. So, although optical brightness is fully phase -dependent, this is not always the case in the near infrared.

Temperatures of gas giants reduce over time and with distance from their star. Lowering the temperature increases optical albedo even without clouds.

At a sufficiently low temperature, water clouds form, which further increase optical albedo. At even lower temperatures ammonia clouds form, resulting in the highest albedos at most optical and near-infrared wavelengths.

In , a magnetic field around HD b was inferred from the way hydrogen was evaporating from the planet. It is the first indirect detection of a magnetic field on an exoplanet.

The magnetic field is estimated to be about one tenth as strong as Jupiter's. Interaction between a close-in planet's magnetic field and a star can produce spots on the star in a similar way to how the Galilean moons produce aurorae on Jupiter.

Earth's magnetic field results from its flowing liquid metallic core, but in massive super-Earths with high pressure, different compounds may form which do not match those created under terrestrial conditions.

Compounds may form with greater viscosities and high melting temperatures which could prevent the interiors from separating into different layers and so result in undifferentiated coreless mantles.

Forms of magnesium oxide such as MgSi 3 O 12 could be a liquid metal at the pressures and temperatures found in super-Earths and could generate a magnetic field in the mantles of super-Earths.

Hot Jupiters have been observed to have a larger radius than expected. This could be caused by the interaction between the stellar wind and the planet's magnetosphere creating an electric current through the planet that heats it up causing it to expand.

The more magnetically active a star is the greater the stellar wind and the larger the electric current leading to more heating and expansion of the planet.

This theory matches the observation that stellar activity is correlated with inflated planetary radii.

In August , scientists announced the transformation of gaseous deuterium into a liquid metallic form. This may help researchers better understand giant gas planets , such as Jupiter , Saturn and related exoplanets, since such planets are thought to contain a lot of liquid metallic hydrogen, which may be responsible for their observed powerful magnetic fields.

In , two independent teams of researchers came to opposing conclusions about the likelihood of plate tectonics on larger super-Earths [] [] with one team saying that plate tectonics would be episodic or stagnant [] and the other team saying that plate tectonics is very likely on super-Earths even if the planet is dry.

If super-Earths have more than 80 times as much water as Earth then they become ocean planets with all land completely submerged. However, if there is less water than this limit, then the deep water cycle will move enough water between the oceans and mantle to allow continents to exist.

Large surface temperature variations on 55 Cancri e have been attributed to possible volcanic activity releasing large clouds of dust which blanket the planet and block thermal emissions.

However, the mass of the object is not known; it could be a brown dwarf or low-mass star instead of a planet. The brightness of optical images of Fomalhaut b could be due to starlight reflecting off a circumplanetary ring system with a radius between 20 and 40 times that of Jupiter's radius, about the size of the orbits of the Galilean moons.

The rings of the Solar System's gas giants are aligned with their planet's equator. However, for exoplanets that orbit close to their star, tidal forces from the star would lead to the outermost rings of a planet being aligned with the planet's orbital plane around the star.

A planet's innermost rings would still be aligned with the planet's equator so that if the planet has a tilted rotational axis , then the different alignments between the inner and outer rings would create a warped ring system.

In December a candidate exomoon of a rogue planet was announced. Atmospheres have been detected around several exoplanets.

Originally an IAU committee had proposed a definition that would have included a much larger number of planets as it did not include c as a criterion.

This definition is based in theories of planetary formation, in which planetary embryos initially clear their orbital neighborhood of other smaller objects.

As described by astronomer Steven Soter: The IAU definition presents some challenges for exoplanets because the language is specific to the Solar System and because the criteria of roundness and orbital zone clearance are not presently observable.

Astronomer Jean-Luc Margot proposed a mathematical criterion that determines whether an object can clear its orbit during the lifetime of its host star, based on the mass of the planet, its semimajor axis, and the mass of its host star.

The table below lists Solar System bodies once considered to be planets. Ceres was subsequently classified as a dwarf planet in Beyond the scientific community, Pluto still holds cultural significance for many in the general public due to its historical classification as a planet from to The names for the planets in the Western world are derived from the naming practices of the Romans, which ultimately derive from those of the Greeks and the Babylonians.

In ancient Greece , the two great luminaries the Sun and the Moon were called Helios and Selene ; the farthest planet Saturn was called Phainon , the shiner; followed by Phaethon Jupiter , "bright"; the red planet Mars was known as Pyroeis , the "fiery"; the brightest Venus was known as Phosphoros , the light bringer; and the fleeting final planet Mercury was called Stilbon , the gleamer.

The Greeks also made each planet sacred to one among their pantheon of gods, the Olympians: Helios and Selene were the names of both planets and gods; Phainon was sacred to Cronus , the Titan who fathered the Olympians; Phaethon was sacred to Zeus , Cronus's son who deposed him as king; Pyroeis was given to Ares , son of Zeus and god of war; Phosphoros was ruled by Aphrodite , the goddess of love; and Hermes , messenger of the gods and god of learning and wit, ruled over Stilbon.

The Greek practice of grafting of their gods' names onto the planets was almost certainly borrowed from the Babylonians. The Babylonians named Phosphoros after their goddess of love, Ishtar ; Pyroeis after their god of war, Nergal , Stilbon after their god of wisdom Nabu , and Phaethon after their chief god, Marduk.

For instance, the Babylonian Nergal was a god of war, and thus the Greeks identified him with Ares. Unlike Ares, Nergal was also god of pestilence and the underworld.

Today, most people in the western world know the planets by names derived from the Olympian pantheon of gods. Although modern Greeks still use their ancient names for the planets, other European languages, because of the influence of the Roman Empire and, later, the Catholic Church , use the Roman Latin names rather than the Greek ones.

The Romans, who, like the Greeks, were Indo-Europeans , shared with them a common pantheon under different names but lacked the rich narrative traditions that Greek poetic culture had given their gods.

During the later period of the Roman Republic , Roman writers borrowed much of the Greek narratives and applied them to their own pantheon, to the point where they became virtually indistinguishable.

Uranus is unique in that it is named for a Greek deity rather than his Roman counterpart. Some Romans , following a belief possibly originating in Mesopotamia but developed in Hellenistic Egypt , believed that the seven gods after whom the planets were named took hourly shifts in looking after affairs on Earth.

Because each day was named by the god that started it, this is also the order of the days of the week in the Roman calendar after the Nundinal cycle was rejected — and still preserved in many modern languages.

Earth is the only planet whose name in English is not derived from Greco-Roman mythology. Because it was only generally accepted as a planet in the 17th century, [37] there is no tradition of naming it after a god.

The same is true, in English at least, of the Sun and the Moon, though they are no longer generally considered planets.

The name originates from the 8th century Anglo-Saxon word erda , which means ground or soil and was first used in writing as the name of the sphere of Earth perhaps around Many of the Romance languages retain the old Roman word terra or some variation of it that was used with the meaning of "dry land" as opposed to "sea".

Non-European cultures use other planetary-naming systems. China and the countries of eastern Asia historically subject to Chinese cultural influence such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam use a naming system based on the five Chinese elements: It is not known with certainty how planets are formed.

The prevailing theory is that they are formed during the collapse of a nebula into a thin disk of gas and dust. A protostar forms at the core, surrounded by a rotating protoplanetary disk.

Through accretion a process of sticky collision dust particles in the disk steadily accumulate mass to form ever-larger bodies.

Local concentrations of mass known as planetesimals form, and these accelerate the accretion process by drawing in additional material by their gravitational attraction.

These concentrations become ever denser until they collapse inward under gravity to form protoplanets.

When the protostar has grown such that it ignites to form a star , the surviving disk is removed from the inside outward by photoevaporation , the solar wind , Poynting—Robertson drag and other effects.

Protoplanets that have avoided collisions may become natural satellites of planets through a process of gravitational capture, or remain in belts of other objects to become either dwarf planets or small bodies.

The energetic impacts of the smaller planetesimals as well as radioactive decay will heat up the growing planet, causing it to at least partially melt.

The interior of the planet begins to differentiate by mass, developing a denser core. With the discovery and observation of planetary systems around stars other than the Sun, it is becoming possible to elaborate, revise or even replace this account.

The level of metallicity —an astronomical term describing the abundance of chemical elements with an atomic number greater than 2 helium —is now thought to determine the likelihood that a star will have planets.

There are eight planets in the Solar System , which are in increasing distance from the Sun:. Jupiter is the largest, at Earth masses, whereas Mercury is the smallest, at 0.

An exoplanet extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. As of 1 November , there are 3, confirmed planets in 2, systems , with systems having more than one planet.

These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of giant planets that survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits.

The first confirmed discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star occurred on 6 October , when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the detection of an exoplanet around 51 Pegasi.

From then until the Kepler mission most known extrasolar planets were gas giants comparable in mass to Jupiter or larger as they were more easily detected.

The catalog of Kepler candidate planets consists mostly of planets the size of Neptune and smaller, down to smaller than Mercury.

There are types of planets that do not exist in the Solar System: Another possible type of planet is carbon planets , which form in systems with a higher proportion of carbon than in the Solar System.

A study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1. On December 20, , the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-size exoplanets , Keplere [5] and Keplerf , [6] orbiting a Sun-like star , Kepler Around 1 in 5 Sun-like [b] stars have an "Earth-sized" [c] planet in the habitable [d] zone, so the nearest would be expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.

There are exoplanets that are much closer to their parent star than any planet in the Solar System is to the Sun, and there are also exoplanets that are much farther from their star.

Mercury , the closest planet to the Sun at 0. The Kepler system has five of its planets in shorter orbits than Mercury's, all of them much more massive than Mercury.

Neptune is 30 AU from the Sun and takes years to orbit, but there are exoplanets that are hundreds of AU from their star and take more than a thousand years to orbit, e.

A planetary-mass object PMO , planemo , [] or planetary body is a celestial object with a mass that falls within the range of the definition of a planet: These include dwarf planets , which are rounded by their own gravity but not massive enough to clear their own orbit , the larger moons , and free-floating planemos, which may have been ejected from a system rogue planets or formed through cloud-collapse rather than accretion sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a true planet nor a natural satellite; it is in direct orbit of a star, and is massive enough for its gravity to compress it into a hydrostatically equilibrious shape usually a spheroid , but has not cleared the neighborhood of other material around its orbit.

Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space.

Stars form via the gravitational collapse of gas clouds, but smaller objects can also form via cloud-collapse. Planetary-mass objects formed this way are sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.

Binary systems of sub-brown dwarfs are theoretically possible; Oph was initially thought to be a binary system of a brown dwarf of 14 Jupiter masses and a sub-brown dwarf of 7 Jupiter masses, but further observations revised the estimated masses upwards to greater than 13 Jupiter masses, making them brown dwarfs according to the IAU working definitions.

In close binary star systems one of the stars can lose mass to a heavier companion. Accretion-powered pulsars may drive mass loss. The shrinking star can then become a planetary-mass object.

Some large satellites moons are of similar size or larger than the planet Mercury , e. Jupiter's Galilean moons and Titan. Alan Stern has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account in the definition of a planet, and proposes the term satellite planet for a planet-sized satellite.

Likewise, dwarf planets in the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt should be considered planets according to Stern. Free-floating planets in stellar clusters have similar velocities to the stars and so can be recaptured.

They are typically captured into wide orbits between and 10 5 AU. It is almost independent of the planetary mass. Single and multiple planets could be captured into arbitrary unaligned orbits, non-coplanar with each other or with the stellar host spin, or pre-existing planetary system.

Although each planet has unique physical characteristics, a number of broad commonalities do exist among them. Some of these characteristics, such as rings or natural satellites, have only as yet been observed in planets in the Solar System, whereas others are also commonly observed in extrasolar planets.

According to current definitions, all planets must revolve around stars; thus, any potential " rogue planets " are excluded.

In the Solar System, all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun rotates counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole.

At least one extrasolar planet, WASPb , has been found to orbit in the opposite direction to its star's rotation.

No planet's orbit is perfectly circular, and hence the distance of each varies over the course of its year. The closest approach to its star is called its periastron perihelion in the Solar System , whereas its farthest separation from the star is called its apastron aphelion.

As a planet approaches periastron, its speed increases as it trades gravitational potential energy for kinetic energy, just as a falling object on Earth accelerates as it falls; as the planet reaches apastron, its speed decreases, just as an object thrown upwards on Earth slows down as it reaches the apex of its trajectory.

Planets also have varying degrees of axial tilt; they lie at an angle to the plane of their stars' equators.

This causes the amount of light received by each hemisphere to vary over the course of its year; when the northern hemisphere points away from its star, the southern hemisphere points towards it, and vice versa.

Each planet therefore has seasons, changes to the climate over the course of its year. The time at which each hemisphere points farthest or nearest from its star is known as its solstice.

Each planet has two in the course of its orbit; when one hemisphere has its summer solstice, when its day is longest, the other has its winter solstice, when its day is shortest.

The varying amount of light and heat received by each hemisphere creates annual changes in weather patterns for each half of the planet.

Jupiter's axial tilt is very small, so its seasonal variation is minimal; Uranus, on the other hand, has an axial tilt so extreme it is virtually on its side, which means that its hemispheres are either perpetually in sunlight or perpetually in darkness around the time of its solstices.

The planets rotate around invisible axes through their centres. A planet's rotation period is known as a stellar day. Most of the planets in the Solar System rotate in the same direction as they orbit the Sun, which is counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole , the exceptions being Venus [] and Uranus, [] which rotate clockwise, though Uranus's extreme axial tilt means there are differing conventions on which of its poles is "north", and therefore whether it is rotating clockwise or anti-clockwise.

The rotation of a planet can be induced by several factors during formation. A net angular momentum can be induced by the individual angular momentum contributions of accreted objects.

The accretion of gas by the giant planets can also contribute to the angular momentum. Finally, during the last stages of planet building, a stochastic process of protoplanetary accretion can randomly alter the spin axis of the planet.

However, for "hot" Jupiters, their proximity to their stars means that they are tidally locked i. This means, they always show one face to their stars, with one side in perpetual day, the other in perpetual night.

The defining dynamic characteristic of a planet is that it has cleared its neighborhood. A planet that has cleared its neighborhood has accumulated enough mass to gather up or sweep away all the planetesimals in its orbit.

In effect, it orbits its star in isolation, as opposed to sharing its orbit with a multitude of similar-sized objects. This characteristic was mandated as part of the IAU 's official definition of a planet in August, This criterion excludes such planetary bodies as Pluto , Eris and Ceres from full-fledged planethood, making them instead dwarf planets.

A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.

This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.

Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass for objects with solar-type isotopic abundance , beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.

Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; but there are exoplanets of this size. The Jupiter-mass limit is not universally agreed upon and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 20 Jupiter masses, [] and the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses.

Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury. Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface.

Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle that either is or was a fluid.

The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts , [] but in the giant planets the mantle simply blends into the upper cloud layers.

The terrestrial planets have cores of elements such as iron and nickel , and mantles of silicates. Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen.

All of the Solar System planets except Mercury [] have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep gases close to the surface.

The larger giant planets are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium , whereas the smaller planets lose these gases into space.

Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes , on Earth , planet-wide dust storms on Mars , a greater-than-Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter called the Great Red Spot , and holes in the atmosphere on Neptune.

Hot Jupiters, due to their extreme proximities to their host stars, have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, much like the tails of comets.

One important characteristic of the planets is their intrinsic magnetic moments , which in turn give rise to magnetospheres.

The presence of a magnetic field indicates that the planet is still geologically alive. In other words, magnetized planets have flows of electrically conducting material in their interiors, which generate their magnetic fields.

These fields significantly change the interaction of the planet and solar wind. A magnetized planet creates a cavity in the solar wind around itself called the magnetosphere, which the wind cannot penetrate.

The magnetosphere can be much larger than the planet itself. In contrast, non-magnetized planets have only small magnetospheres induced by interaction of the ionosphere with the solar wind, which cannot effectively protect the planet.

Of the eight planets in the Solar System, only Venus and Mars lack such a magnetic field. Of the magnetized planets the magnetic field of Mercury is the weakest, and is barely able to deflect the solar wind.

Ganymede's magnetic field is several times larger, and Jupiter's is the strongest in the Solar System so strong in fact that it poses a serious health risk to future manned missions to its moons.

The magnetic fields of the other giant planets are roughly similar in strength to that of Earth, but their magnetic moments are significantly larger.

The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are strongly tilted relative the rotational axis and displaced from the centre of the planet.

In , a team of astronomers in Hawaii observed an extrasolar planet around the star HD , which appeared to be creating a sunspot on the surface of its parent star.

Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System such as Neptune and Pluto have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies this is also common in satellite systems.

All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites , often called "moons". Earth has one, Mars has two, and the giant planets have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems.

Many moons of the giant planets have features similar to those on the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life especially Europa.

The four giant planets are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny ' moonlets ' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure.

Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.

No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. The sub-brown dwarf Cha , which has been described as a rogue planet , is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc [] and the sub-brown dwarf OTS 44 was shown to be surrounded by a substantial protoplanetary disk of at least 10 Earth masses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Class of astronomical body directly orbiting a star or stellar remnant.

This article is about the astronomical object. For other uses, see Planet disambiguation. History of astronomy , Definition of planet , and Timeline of Solar System astronomy.

Indian astronomy and Hindu cosmology. Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam. IAU definition of planet.

Weekday names and Naked-eye planet. Supernova remnant ejecta producing planet-forming material. Solar System — sizes but not distances are to scale.

The Sun and the eight planets of the Solar System. The inner planets , Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars. List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System.

Orbit and Orbital elements. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Atmosphere and Extraterrestrial atmospheres. Natural satellite and Planetary ring.

Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal. The official definition applies only to the Solar System, whereas the definition applies to planets around other stars.

The extrasolar planet issue was deemed too complex to resolve at the IAU conference. The term "satellite" had already begun to be used to distinguish such bodies from those around which they orbited "primary planets".

Result of the IAU Resolution votes". Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 May The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.

Retrieved 11 January Explicit use of et al. The Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 June Journal of Near Eastern Studies.

Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan Walker ed. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East.

A History of Horoscopic Astrology. Astrological reports to Assyrian kings. State Archives of Assyria. Enuma Anu Enlil, Tablet The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa".

Journal of the American Oriental Society.

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